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The Paradox of EV Adoption: Norway's Success and the Green Dilemma of Battery Production

Norway: The Global Epicenter of Electric Vehicle Adoption

As we pivot towards a future of sustainable transport, Norway has emerged as the global test center for electric vehicles (EVs). With policies that have enabled an impressive surge in EV adoption, the country offers vital insights into the practicalities and implications of a shift from fossil fuel vehicles.

As of 2022, electric vehicles accounted for an impressive 79% of new passenger car registrations in Norway. The country is significantly ahead of other nations in the adoption of EVs, largely due to a unique set of policies that strongly favor these vehicles. Notably, Norway waives import duties and car registration taxes for electric vehicles, offering significant financial incentives for consumers (World Economic Forum, 2023).

This approach to incentivizing electric vehicle adoption appears to be incredibly effective. By 2023, a new fueling station 110 miles south of Oslo offered a glimpse into a future where electric vehicles rule (The New York Times, 2023). Further, Norway has ambitious plans to phase out gas-powered cars entirely by 2025 (The Week, 2023). If successful, this could serve as a model for other countries aiming to reduce carbon emissions and transition to renewable energy sources.

In terms of consumer market share, new electric car sales exceeded 80 percent in 2021 (Nye Naf, 2022). This extraordinary figure underscores the rapid shift taking place in Norway's transport sector. The government benefits not only make electric vehicles more affordable but also offer additional incentives like access to dedicated traffic lanes and parking spaces (The New York Times, 2022).

Norway's far northern region, Finnmark, provides an excellent proving ground for electric vehicles' performance in winter conditions, given its Arctic climate (The Globe and Mail, 2023). Such real-world testing is crucial for assessing the viability and reliability of EVs under various environmental conditions, contributing to further improvements in technology and design.

The Green Dilemma of EV Battery Production

Electric vehicles (EVs) are often touted as a significant step toward a sustainable future. They have been widely embraced due to their potential to significantly reduce the carbon emissions associated with traditional internal combustion vehicles. However, while EVs certainly have benefits, their green reputation is somewhat complex when examining the production of the batteries that power them.

EV Battery Production and Emissions

EV battery production involves the use of raw materials such as lithium, cobalt, and manganese. Mining and processing these materials are energy-intensive activities, leading to substantial carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions (, 2023). This process raises environmental concerns, particularly when considering that the sourcing of these materials often involves environmentally harmful mining practices (, 2019).

Electric cars do not produce tailpipe emissions, but their green credentials are somewhat marred by the CO2 emissions associated with their battery production. Furthermore, there are significant CO2 emissions during the charging of EVs, particularly in countries with a high dependency on fossil fuels for electricity production (, 2023). Therefore, while electric cars contribute significantly to reducing local pollution (, 2023), their overall impact on global carbon emissions is a more complex issue.

Evaluating the "Greenness" of EVs

The environmental impact of EVs cannot be evaluated solely based on the use phase; it's crucial to consider their entire lifecycle, including manufacturing, use, and end-of-life handling. Unfortunately, this is where things become complicated. Electric vehicles' batteries make them more carbon-intensive to manufacture than conventional gasoline vehicles. Yet, they compensate for this carbon footprint during their operational phase by driving much cleaner under nearly any conditions (, 2022).

Nevertheless, this doesn't automatically render EVs as environmentally friendly as often believed. For instance, a 2017 study estimated that it could take an average of nine years for an electric car to have a lower overall carbon footprint than a diesel car (, 2017). This statistic underscores the significance of the emissions associated with battery production and the use of electricity from fossil fuels in EVs' overall environmental impact.

However, the transition to EVs is not without challenges. Range anxiety, a concern related to the driving distance an EV can travel before requiring a recharge, is an important consideration for many potential buyers (Nye Naf, 2022). Therefore, it is vital for manufacturers to improve EV ranges and for countries to build comprehensive charging infrastructures.


While the rapid adoption of electric vehicles, as exemplified by Norway, signals a promising shift towards more sustainable transportation, it is critical to consider the environmental impact of battery production. For a truly green future of EVs, it is necessary to seek cleaner and more sustainable methods of battery production, energy generation for charging, and end-of-life handling and recycling of components. The lessons learned from Norway's success and the dilemmas surrounding battery production could have far-reaching implications for global efforts to mitigate climate change and transition to renewable energy sources.


1. iNews. (2023, March 9). Why your electric car may not be as green as you think, from batteries to production. Retrieved from

2. UCL News. (2023, March 9). "If we really want to be more sustainable we will have to live lives that are more local and ones that rely more on public transport," said Professor Matthew Carmona (UCL Bartlett School of Planning) who said that electric cars help to reduce pollution locally. Retrieved from

3. Foundation for Economic Education (FEE). Electric Cars Aren't Nearly as Green as People Think. Retrieved from

4. Interesting Engineering. (2022, November 11). EV battery production is not exactly "green." Retrieved from

5. CBC News. (2019, December 29). Mining lithium for batteries, plus the power source they're charged from, affects an EV's impact on the environment. Retrieved from

6. Bloomberg Opinion. (2021, November 4). That Electric Car's Not as Green as You Think Those things don't just grow on trees, you know. Zero emissions, not counting all the carbon it took to make it. Retrieved from

7. MIT Climate. (2022, October 13). Are electric vehicles definitely better for the climate than gas-powered cars? Retrieved from

8. The New York Times. (2023, May 8). BAMBLE, Norway — About 110 miles south of Oslo, along a highway lined with pine and birch trees, a shiny fueling station offers a glimpse of a future where electric vehicles rule... Retrieved from

9. World Economic Forum. (2023, January 6). In Norway, electric vehicles accounted for 79% of new passenger car registrations in 2022, according to latest data. It's streaks ahead of other nations because Norway waives import duties and car registration taxes for electric vehicles. Retrieved from

10. InsideClimate News. (2021, February 11). Norway is far ahead of the U.S. in its adoption of electric vehicles. The country plans to have 100 percent of new cars be EVs by 2025. Retrieved from

11. The Week. (2023, May 9). In 2022, 80 percent of Norway's new car sales were electric, and it plans to phase out gas-powered cars entirely

in 2025. Retrieved from

12. The New York Times. (2022, January 11). For years, Norway has been the world leader in shifting away from traditional cars, thanks to government benefits that made electric vehicles far more affordable and offered extras like letting... Retrieved from

13. NAF. (n.d.). In 2021, sales of new electric cars passed 80 percent of the consumer market in Norway. Retrieved from

14. The Globe and Mail. (2023, February 20). The Finnmark region in northern Norway has become one of the world’s best testbeds for electric vehicles in winter, with an Arctic climate... Retrieved from

15. InsideEVs. (2021, October 29). We all know Norway is the most charged country on the planet—in September, electric vehicles accounted for 78% of the total auto market. Retrieved from

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